on the horizontal blue rail to go Eastwards to the next node, rail-node
D. (There are 4 nodes in all)
About this page. A better way of navigating Long Pages. Large Pages. Taking
a journey using rails and flights
particular Large Page includes all the techniques which I've developed in
Large Page Design. A page which uses some of these techniques and which
is very easy to use is the page Poems.
Readers without any interest at all in poetry would still gain useful information
by using it. I developed Large Page Design before the advent of widescreen
monitors. Now that these monitors are in common use, the reasons for using
Large Page Design are even more compelling.
Web pages are very common, of course. Also very common is an instruction
such as 'click here to return to top of page' or a button reading 'top.'
These instructions are repeated at intervals down the page. This isn't an
efficient way of working. It takes time to find the instruction or the top button
before clicking. The repeated instructions are obtrusive
and detract from the design. If a user needs to go to the top of page repeatedly,
perhaps to use a list like the one at the top of this page, there are better
innovations of mine give much better ways of navigating long pages quickly
and easily. One is the expanse
or 'expanse-button.' Click on text or an image anywhere and you're taken
to the top of the page. This is much quicker than looking for an instruction
and moving the cursor to it. It may not be too much trouble to do that once,
but the gains in efficiency come with repeated actions. This innovation
is used in a number of pages on this site, for example the page Poems.
page, like most of the pages of the site, uses the rail
for navigation, the blue band at the left of
the page. Anywhere on the page, simply click on the rail to go back to top
of page (and to page-home). Again, this is a more efficient way of working
than finding an instruction. This is a top-rail but rails can be used for
many other purposes in Web design, for example, giving quick access to a
table of contents.
rail can be used to go to the top of a section of a page, so that the user
can click on an underlined link for this section. The page on concrete poetry,
has a section
can be horizontal as well as vertical. Horizontal rails are used for horizontal movement
in the page. This avoids the notoriously cumbersome
procedure of horizontal scrolling and opens up new possibilities in the
design of pages which are wide as well as long - Large
are many examples of Web content which are inherently 'wide' as well as
long. I discuss some examples later. If Large Page Design isn't used, then
the content is distorted. Large Page Design is suitable
for the display of a vast range of information, non-academic as well as
academic, and offers new possibilities in Website design.
the Large Page can be compared with taking
a journey. Discussions of web navigation in books and
web-sites are generally concerned with navigation in a multiple-page site
and give guidance to the user and designer in how to get from one page to
another. Navigation in Large Page Design is far more similar to navigation
as understood by travellers and explorers, navigation in a continuous environment.
The starting point for journeys on the Large Page is page-home
just as Home Page is the starting point in a site made
up of many pages. The designer may well be able to give these journeys some
of the eventfulness - excitement - of our other journeys. We may well be
taken to regions which are very different from page-home and very remote
from page-home. To get to these regions, we can take rails and even 'invisible
rails,' (although their position is shown by rail-guides.) Invisible rails
may be chosen by the designer in preference to visible rails because they
are design elements which are less obtrusive.
way of getting around the Large Page is by taking a flight.
The links used in the vast majority of Web sites are
what I call flights - click on underlined text, for example, and you take
a flight. I use in addition flight nodes.
These are also used on this page, for example in page
home. This is an example (non-functional in this case):
nodes are the starting points for flights. Sometimes, they are terminus
closer look at Large Page Design and the techniques I use, beginning with
ways of getting around the page
be used for navigating the Large Page (or the Long Pages common in Web design.)
In this case the buttons are of considerable size, as the name suggests.
One way of implementing expanses is to make all the text on the page into
linked text but to conceal the fact that it is linked text by turning off
underlining and changing the colour of the linked text. The linked text
looks just the same as ordinary text at all times, both before and after
clicking on it. I use this technique on a number of pages on this site,
for example the page Poems.
By clicking on the text at any point, you're taken back to the top of the
page. The text in this case is dual-purpose. The main
function of the text is information (or providing an experience, or
insight, or whatever it may be) but it's also used for linking, so that
fewer conventional buttons have to be used. It's more convenient to click
on the text at any point to reach the top of the page than to find an instruction
'click here to go to top of the page' and it makes for a far cleaner, less
up dual-purpose text is also much quicker and much easier than implementing
a set of top-buttons or instructions to 'click here to reach top of page.'
It takes very little time for the designer to set up the Cascading Style
Sheet and linking the page to an external style sheet takes only a few seconds.
It takes only a few more seconds to insert a named anchor at the top of
the page, to select all the text on the page and to link it to the named
anchor. Once the style sheet is available, any number of long pages, or
very long pages, can make use of this superior way of reaching the top of
text links on the page will no longer be underlined and no longer in colour,
before and after clicking on the link. Wherever I use dual-purpose text,
I simply underline the text link to indicate its function. There's no change
when the text is clicked. An image map doesn't change when it's clicked
upon, and I don't regard it as essential in the least to have text links
which change when they're clicked. If text links are preferred which are
underlined and in colour, and which change colour when they're clicked,
then this is easy enough to implement by creating a style class, a style
which is used on selected text, rather than on all instances of a tag.
as well as text can be dual-purpose. As well as providing information (or
an aesthetic experience, or whatever may be their primary function) they
can also be used for linking. Some of the poems on the page Poems
are in image form and are used for linking.
the rail and expanses are derived from the usual buttons (almost always
small and rectangular) by the process I call diversification,
which is explained in the General Glossary (different from the Glossary
of the terms I use in Large Page Design.) Expanses, like rails, are very
versatile. They can be used for many purposes, besides returning to the
top of the page.
Horizontal scrolling is acceptable for short
distances but for longer distances horizontal rails are far more
convenient and much faster. Horizontal rails take the user from rail-node
to rail-node to rail-node. Easterly rails make moving in an easterly direction across
the wide page very easy. To return to your starting point, in a
westerly direction, click on a Westerly rail. Each rail-node can give access to content near
The Easterly and Westerly rails need not be obtrusive. Very thin
rail-guides can be used. The rail-guides
can form a network over the Large Page, in the form of an unobtrusive grid.
Clicking on the lines of a grid would be very difficult, but the user can
click on an invisible active band below the rail guide, not on the
rail-guide itself.The blue
vertical rail at the left, used to reach top of page, could easily be made
invisible, if the designer feels that the visible rail is obtrusive. Its position would be shown by the thin vertical line next to
rails on the page is quickly and easily done, once a 'basic rail' is available.
The basic rail can be quickly created in a graphics program. It takes the
form of a simple image, a rectangle something like 15 pixels wide - the
exact width is a matter of preference - and more or less any height. (The
rail is 'trimmed to shape' or increased in length before being placed on
the page.) I use a shade of blue, since blue is the usual colour for links.
The exact blue is RGB 102 153 255, in hexadecimal notation #66 99 FF, but
any colour can be chosen and the rail can also be the same colour as the
page on which it's to be placed - very often white - so that the rail is
'invisible.' The rail image is a gif file. I use layers rather than tables
for the layout of the page. A long, narrow layer is created on the page
and the rail is inserted into the layer and the height adjusted, using a
graphics program, so that it fits. A named anchor is inserted at the top
of the page and the image, the rail, is linked to the anchor.
rail has many uses, not just for making possible 'fast lines.' It's intended
to give some of the advantages of a frameset document, navigational and
other elements which are visible throughout the document and which do not
disappear when the page is scrolled, without the disadvantages of frames.
This page, like the glossary, is long, and the advantages of the rail are
corresponding. By clicking on it at any point, the user is brought to the
top of the document, with no need to scroll or find a top button.
are many other uses for a single rail or multiple rails in Web Design, for
example the contents-rail, giving access to a Table of
Contents and the search-rail, giving search facilities.
rails allow rapid movement in different directions. So also do flights
and flight-nodes. Flights can be used to cover short as
well as long distances. Rails give the user reassurance, linking the place
left with the place of arrival. Flight-guides give the
same reassurance, in the form of a visible and continuous linkage, but don't
indicate the presence of an active band like rail-guides.
can be used for various purposes. Making flights, available, the function
of flight-nodes, is only one of these. Nodes can be used to give access
to the information near to them, which is often in the form of information-clusters.
Containers can be used to hold these clusters.
can consist of text, diagrams (with or without accompanying text), the separate
parts of a large flow-chart and obviously very many other pieces of information.
Alternatively, they may consist of things which are more than simply 'information,'
such as thumbnails of photographs and short poems.
are separated by white space but they can be brought together - compacted
- very easily by the user so that they can be seen more easily. Content
on the page need not be fixed in position, although most large pages will
have fixed content (which is easier to implement for the designer.)
may be either linkage-arrows or linkage-lines.
I refer to open and compact forms in information
architecture in which there are different 'textures' on the screen. 'Compact'
in this connection has the dictionary meaning of 'closely packed together'
more often than 'neatly fitted into a restricted space,' although when the
information clusters take the form of blocks of the same dimensions then
they can be neatly fitted together.
learn at an early stage in their design education the importance of white
type design suggests that judicious use of white space makes a page much
more readable...Unfortunately, many Web designers tend to cram as much
content into a screen as possible...
space is very good. In fact, Web pages may need even more white space
- as much as 40 - 60 percent white space on a page. However, some usability
experts, notably Jared Spool (Spool 1999) suggest that white space actually
may not improve page usability - and may even hinder it. This goes so
far against conventional wisdom that it is very hard to believe. The probable
answer is that the user can "cover more ground" quickly when
looking through relatively dense text pages formatted for skimming."
(Reference, Powell, op.cit. Page 471, 472)
The advantage of compacting is that it allows the user to remove white space
and to move very quickly from open to compact view so that the advantages
of both forms of display (free use of white space and restricted use of
white space) are available.
a linkage here with the matrix form and fragmented form of a poem which
is demonstrated on this site. The matrix form of the poem is compact - most
poems are in matrix form, in continuous lines. When the matrix is fragmented,
different layers are moved. In this case, they may stay near to each other
but their relative position will alter, so that lines which are lower in
the matrix become higher in the fragmented poem. The techniques used for
defragmenting the poem and for compacting information clusters are exactly
the same - the material is distributed on different layers, which are moved
by means of a timeline.
on the page may also be continuous, not in the form of
clusters, and not inside containers, but whatever form the information takes,
it can easily be reached from a node.
information: the viewer
viewer can be used to display information (or other content) which has been
moved from a distant (or not so distant) location.
is suitable for the display of a very large number of information-types.
It allows the user to navigate the Large Page with particular ease. Generally,
labelling will be used rather than colour-coding or tonality
coding (discussed below) to provide visual cues as to position in the page.
Labelling doesn't have the immediacy of colour-coding or perspective coding
- it takes a moment to read the label - but it does have obvious advantages
in the systematic provision of information.
container can be labelled and identified by the convention usually used
in spreadsheets: a letter for the column and a number for the row. The letter
identifies the container-column. So, container B4 is in
container-column B and row 4. If the information isn't in the form of contained
clusters, then the same convention can still be used. The Large Page is
divided into Large Cells and letters and numbers are used to identify a
cell on the page. So, cell A1 would be at the top left hand corner of the
page. It's common for the index of an atlas or road map to refer to locations
on a page in this way.
are used to access columns B, C, D and E. The containers in row 1 are easily
accessible. To go to the container in the row below, row 2, simply click
on the blue button. If you've reached a container in, let's say, row 3 and
you want to get to the top of the page, where the nodes can be found, you
use the visible rail, the blue band, at the left of each container-column.
I'm sure you'll find that this system is very easy to use.
way of moving from one container to another is by means of active
borders. This diagram shows four containers, labelled according
to spreadsheet conventions: containers A1 and A2 in column A, containers
B1 and B2 in column B. Each container has four borders, labelled 1, 2, 3,
4 in the diagram below. To go from container A1 to container B1, the user
would simply click on the border of A1 nearest to B1: border 2. To go from
container A1 to the container below, A2, the user would simply click on
the border nearest to it, that is, border 3 of A1. (The borders are obviously
not active in this reduced-scale diagram. Four borders are shown for each
container, even though movements are not possible in every direction, for
example, from A1 upwards.) Whatever the contents of the container, text
or graphic, clicking on the container would take you back to page-home.
If the borders are regarded as too obtrusive, they can easily be made invisible,
the same colour as the page.
containers shown on this page are dispersed containers: each
container is surrounded by quite extensive white space. Cell-containers
or simply cells, on the other hand, are adjoining,
as in the cells of a spreadsheet.
design which makes use of cell-containers is probably the easiest of all
designs to implement, obviously a very important consideration.
shows just a few cell-containers (the reason for the coloured strips is
can be used very easily to create an almost instant design, and flight-nodes
and invisible rails can be added easily for navigation. The layout of the
Large Page is completely straightforward, and there's no particular need
to create a page-plan. A spreadsheet can be used to create the cells. Spreadsheets,
of course, are very versatile tools, and the cells can contain the most
varied data - accounts, scientific and technological information, everyday
lists, and images. They can function as databases, allowing data to be sorted
in various ways. Many spreadsheet users only use cells of the dimensions
which are provided, but cells can be merged to make much larger cells, suitable
for the display of more extensive content.
table above shows empty cell-containers which can be filled with information,
and includes one larger cell-container produced by merging. The table as
a whole is small but of course there's no difficulty in producing very large
tables to occupy the Large Page.
a large table with content of a fairly uniform type, it's important to give
positional information - otherwise one part can look very similar to another
part and lack distinctiveness. This positional information can be provided
by means of position-strips. A small table like the one
above wouldn't need them - the strips at the upper and lower edges are there
simply to illustrate their use.
of the most varied types can be used - uniform fills, texture and pattern
fills and gradients. Strips can by polychrome or monochrome, thin or broad,
only at the top of the page or at frequent intervals across the width of
the page. Strips are functional but they may also be useful in enlivening
the display of information. The example above shows strips with two different
textures at the top of the table and a colour-gradient strip below the table,
obvious extension of the technique is to combine position-strips with visible
rails, so that one element has two functions: a means of travelling to a
destination (the rail) and a means of showing the position of the user (the
would also be possible to give positional cues by using different backgrounds
for the information in different parts of the table - for example the textured
backgrounds which are in common use on Web-sites. Myself, I favour a plain
white background. With black text, this gives (almost) maximum readability
but the use of textured backgrounds is in accordance with the principle
that decorative techniques can become functional techniques.
their advantages, I would expect there to be minimal use of 'decorative-functional
techniques' in very formal settings, such as research papers in science
and engineering, in academic works in general, but it's quite possible that
they could gain wide acceptance in the future.
organization and chromatograms
most useful form of organization is grid organization,
but some content is better suited to radial organization. In
radial organization, page-home is at the centre. Colour-coding isn't essential
in radial organization any more than in rectangular organization, but there's
colour coding in the illustrative example which follows, a fairly exotic
one - from the centre outwards, blue, green, red, with white at the periphery.
I refer to the colour-coded page or sub-page as a chromatogram (colour-pattern).
(Large pages have to be rectangular, but sub-pages, inscribed in a Large
Page, may be circular, as here.) Colour-coding helps to prevent the user
from feeling lost, a prime objective in the navigation of a Large Page,
as in the navigation of complete sites.
the example here, page-home is shown as a black square. Only some of the
rail-nodes are shown, as small black rectangles. The rail-guides which indicate
the position of the invisible rails for navigation, are shown as white lines.
In addition, there could be concentric rail-lines from node to node and
provide ways of providing useful visual information to the user about general
location in the Large Page.
use of gradients in chromatograms gives further visual
information to the user: directional information. A gradual
transition from one colour hue to another, or from one tone to another (from
'more faint' to 'less faint,' perhaps) may show users that they are getting
nearer to page-home.
and to the right there's a chromatogram as it would appear in a separate
Large Page. The chromatogram could, of course, be far larger. White at the
periphery gives way to fainter red which leads to a more intense red. You
may find the experience more one of being immersed in the page than of looking
at the page. In this example, the best way of moving around the chromatogram
is by using the two very small arrows provided by the browser at the lower
right of the page and the two arrows at the left and top. In a 'working'
chromatogram, of course, navigation would be by means of active rails and
disadvantage of chromatograms, of course, is to do with accessibility -
some users are 'colour-blind.' However, there are monochrome equivalents
of chromatograms, and differences between bands and gradients can be shown
perfectly easily by using tonal values without colour: black, white and
shades of grey.ly different views of the perspective diagram above.
in Large Page Design has a linkage with the home page of a multiple page
site and obviously in a site which uses many pages as well as one or more
Large Pages there will still be a home page. Page-home can be used in Long
Page Design and Wide Page Design as well as in Large Page Design. In these
cases, the information it gives about using the page isn't extensive.
is the starting point for journeys around the Large Page. Psychologically,
page-home will be a place of security and a familiar sight after travelling
around the Large Page, but a place which is very easy to leave and which
will contain these components:
A small information-board,
giving basic information about the page.
or index, listing the information-clusters or other sources of information
on the page. This may be described as a 'List of Flight Destinations),
as on this page.
And sometimes one or
more of these:
A page-plan, an
aid to navigating the page (not always necessary.)
A network-plan (for
complex pages, if thought necessary).
for consulting information-clusters. To use space more economically, the
page-plan can be stored in the viewer until an information-cluster is
put into the viewer. This isn't applicable if content is fixed on the
A control-panel for
different actions, for example, compacting, the removal of white space
is very much for specialists. The network-plan gives the information needed
for the application of graph theory to the page. Graph
theory need not concern most designers and users, but it can be useful one in the case of complex Large Pages. For the application
of graph theory, the difference between flight-nodes and rail-nodes isn't
important. The term 'node' is retained, and supplemented by other terms
and concepts in graph theory - edges, directed edges, Minimum Spanning Tree,
loops, and so on. Here is the network-plan for the precursor of this Large
Page, showing nodes and edges:
arrive in a new place and you have the feeling that "you could be anywhere."
Alternatively, you may arrive in a new place and the region is a distinct
one. It may be distinctive in building materials, architecture, vegetation,
temperature, accent or language.
the same way, regions are areas of the Large Page which
are contrasted with other regions in one or more ways. Regions may be formed
is a very important way of establishing regional differences. Large
Page Design is likely to give typographers more opportunities than other
kinds of Web design, for the most part. In the usual multi-page site, the
need is for a consistent typographic style from page to page and on each
page the use of very few fonts. Large Pages will often benefit from the
use of quite a number of contrasting fonts to establish regional differences.
In this large page, sub-region 1b, the Glossary of terms I use in Large
Page Design, is distinguished from sub-region 1a by typography.
many Large Pages, particularly those with academic content, typographic
differences are all that is required, except, perhaps, for subdued colour
coding. In other contexts, accentuated differences in colour and/or texture
may be appropriate, and these are described further in the section above,
with an interest in non-functional design can take this design principle
much further and create many variants. This is just one example: Web design
can be linked with garden design
to accentuate regional differences in the Large Page. Regions of the Large
Page can be warm or cool, with drifts of colour, there can be restful and
tranquil regions contrasted with busier and more animated regions. The Web
Page may even change through the year, colours being replaced in the various
can quickly get a 'bird's eye view' of the page, what I call aerial
view by using the zoom facility available in all the most
commonly used browsers - zooming out
rather than zooming in. You can appreciate very easily the organization
of a significant part of the Large Page, and then return to what I call
'ground view,' which is used for reading this text. There's a real fascination,
I think, in being able to switch between aerial view and ground view of
aerial view, all the links are 'active' - clicking on them produces the
expected result. The only disadvantage is, of course, that the components
are smaller in aerial view and more difficult to find and click. The use
of expanses or expanse-buttons removes
any residual difficulty. Expanses, as the name suggests, are buttons which
are not small, like the buttons almost universally used in Web-sites at
the moment or long and thin like rail-buttons, but extensive. They can be
used very easily in aerial view. Flight-nodes are easier
to find and use than link text and are useful in navigating in aerial view.
makes a page-plan unnecessary for many pages, particularly when straightforward
methods of organizing the page are used, such as grid organization. Designers
can produce versions of page-plans very easily by zooming out of the page
and copying and pasting the screen view.
According to the Web Style Guide,
an excellent source of advice and information,
page graphics that exceed the width dimension of the most common display
screens look amateurish and will inconvenience many readers by forcing
them to scroll both horizontally and vertically to see the full page layout.
It's bad enough to have to scroll in one (vertical) direction; having
to scroll in two directions is intolerable.
How, then, can Large Pages be justified as a conscious design choice?
The answer is: very easily. Large-scale content will often make the Large
Page by far the best and most convenient choice. If horizontal and vertical
scrolling were the only means for navigation then the best and choice would
have considerable disadvantages but the methods I've already mentioned and
will discuss in more detail are likely to make moving around the page easy
for users - as well as interesting and enjoyable. Large Page Design, then,
is about the methods needed to navigate in extensive content displayed as
a single page which is wide as well as deep.
are just a very few examples of large-scale content from academic and non-academic
areas which may well make Large Page Design the method of choice. In each
of them, the content to be displayed is inherently wide, and to truncate
it and place the content on a Narrow Page instead of a Wide Page will usually
not do justice to the content.
The architecture of a web site is often inherently broad as well as long.
A modified linear site may be very wide. A wide hierarchy is based on breadth
of choices. A grid is a "linear structure that presents both a horizontal
and a vertical relationship between items." (Thomas A. Powell, 'Web
Design,' Second Edition, Page 170.) These architectures are chosen because
the content demands it. Site maps are useful for some of the same reasons
that geographical maps are useful. The site maps for architectures such
as these will be naturally large.
Very large diagrams in Biology and Medicine. Examples include many
charts of metabolic pathways, Genetics diagrams which give information about
genomes and diagrams of food webs in ecological studies.
Diagrams showing large and complex circuits in electrical and electronic
engineering and complex pipework in engineering.
Accounting information of any size. Accounts are often inherently
wide and long. This information may be in the form of spreadsheet data.
Flow charts and diagrams which are concerned with the structure
or activities of medium-sized and large organizations.
A wide display may be chosen even if the content doesn't make it
very desirable. Poems on a site can be displayed in rows
and columns, rather than in a narrow vertical band.
when the content doesn't make Large Page Design the obvious choice, using
a large page rather than a long page may well offer advantages Supposing
a page has 25 screenfulls of information and is displayed as a Long Page:
vertical but no horizontal scrolling. We show the page by means of a scaled
diagram which is 25 units long. The furthest distance which has to be traversed
on this diagram is 25 units If the same content is displayed by means of
a single Wide Page which is 5 screenfulls wide by 5 screenfulls long, then
the furthest distance is a diagonal, for example from top left to lower
right, and is just over 7 units. In other words, 'travelling distances'
are much shorter on the Large Page than on the Long Page. Psychologically,
all the content is likely to seem conveniently to hand, well within reach.
the Long Page or the Large Page is the better way of displaying content
depends very much on the content. Extensive text in continuous prose may
be better suited to the Long Page, but this need not be the automatic choice.
use Long Pages for extensive content but Wide Pages and Large Pages (which
are wide as well as long) are often more suitable for the purpose. Extensive
information may well be distorted if Large Page Design isn't used.
The claim that horizontal
scrolling as well as vertical scrolling makes Large Pages difficult to
use isn't so. There are innovations which eliminate the need for scrolling
and which solve the problem, such as:
The rail. The rail
at the left, the vertical blue band, is used for vertical movement, to
reach the top of the page, but rails can also be used for horizontal movement
or for movement in any direction. They also have many other uses besides
movement on the page.
Expanses or expanse
buttons can also be used for movement on the page or for other actions.
Expanses are not implemented on this page but are implemented on some
other pages of this site. By clicking on the text at any point, the user
is taken to the top of the page.
Flights can also
be used for movement. Clicking on a flight button takes the user to a
near or distant location.
Taking the user to
a new location is not the only way of finding information on the page.
Instead of the user being taken to the information, the information can
be brought from a distant location to the user. It can be inserted into
Nodes allow ready
access to the information near to them. Information may be in 'containers,'
generally rectangular and often arranged in the form of a grid. The containers
may be touching, like the cells of a spreadsheet, or separated. Alternatively,
the information may not be displayed in containers.
Zooming allows the
user to see the whole of the Large Page, or a great deal of the Large
Page. This is 'aerial view' contrasted with the usual way of using a page,
is presented by Large Page Design may obviously be of the most varied
kinds and not purely factual. To give just a few examples, poems or photographs
as well as scientific, technological and other academic content. Large
Page Design can give aesthetic and emotional experiences, such as the
experience of travelling on the Large Page, taking the user into new,
varied, often remote regions, away from the security of page-home, the
starting point for journeys on the Large Page.
I see Large Page Design as an
instance of diversification (please see the General
Glossary for an explanation of this term.)
To call an artist 'a miniaturist'
is usually no compliment. Web designers have concentrated their attention
on the viewing area, the screen, and ignored wider vistas. Screens have
increased in size but the viewing area still cramps the designer, so
often. Large Page Design opens up new possibilities. When we're inside
a large and magnificent building, we can only see part of it, but then
we reach another view-point and new vistas open up. So, in a Large Page,
what we see on the screen is what we can see from one view-point, and
then we move on to another. Not all notable works of architecture are
very large, but an architect with any ambitions doesn't design very
small buildings, only miniatures.
And so for information architecture:
there's the need for spaciousness to provide contrast, and the need
for extensive structure to accommodate extensive content, content that
is wide as well as deep - and so much contemporary content is very extensive
in this sense.
Imagine settlers on the edge of
a very large island. They cultivate one edge, not much more. They haven't
explored the interior - walking is slow and tiring. Designers have been
using the left edge of the page almost exclusively for a long time.
(This is not to criticize the competence or vision of designers in the
least.) There are ways of exploring the interior without using tedious
scrolling to any great extent, much faster and easier ways. Why not
I form a linkage between two sharply
contrasted spheres. The American pioneers headed West. In his essay
'Walking,' Henry David Thoreau wrote of the West "The future lies
that way to me...And that way the nation is moving, aad I may say that
mankind progress from east to west...we go westward as into the future,
with a spirit of enterprise and adventure." But in Web design,
there is no alternative to the move in the opposite direction: Eastwards,
away from the security of the left edge of the page.
Glossary of terms
I use in Large Page Design
The glossary needs to be used in conjunction with the fuller explanations
above. The terminology I've devised makes extensive use of compound terms,
often hyphenated, such as top-rail, rail-guide, rail-movement, rail-node.
I very much hope that the 'vocabulary building' of Large Page Design is
one of its incidental attractions. Throughout this glossary, I refer to
'information' but this is to be understood very broadly. It may include
scientific, technological, legal, financial and organizational information
- information, in fact, from every academic field - as well as information
used in everyday life, but it may also include matters which are not only
to do with information, such as poetry and images with aesthetic impact.
I include a few terms which concern developments I'm working on or have
worked on but which are not discussed in this page.
Refers to a structure such as a rail which brings about movement
or some other action if clicked or otherwise activated by the mouse. A rail-guide
simply shows the position of an invisible rail and is inactive.
border Borders surrounding containers, used for moving from container
to container very quickly and easily. To get to the next cell, the user
simply clicks on the border nearest to this cell.
view A zoomed view of the Large Page - as if from a height - which
allows some, most or all of the Large Page to be seen at once and certainly
far more than in ground view.The user
can navigate within the Large Page or carry out other actions very easily
before returning to ground view to read the page or make other use of it.
Internet Explorer 7includes the zooming facility needed to use aerial view.
The browser Opera includes useful but more limited zooming facilities.
Containers for the temporary or permanent holding of information
which are touching rather than separated by white space. There is a linkage
with the cells of a spreadsheet. Cell-containers may vary widely in size
and may be resizeable.
A striking position-indicator and/or movement-indicator used in
radial organization which uses colour coding. For occasional use.
Removal of the white space between containers or information clusters.
When information is compacted, more information is visible on the screen.
Uncompacted information uses white space as a separator, with the accepted
benefits of white space in design.
Information on the large page may be uncontained information or
contained information. The containers for contained information are 'boxes,'
often rectangular, in which the information is placed either permanently
or temporarily - the containers may be emptied or the information may be
replaced with other information. Containers may be colour-coded or otherwise
distinguished from other containers.
In grid organization, containers which are arranged in columns.
Compare 'container-rows.' In the page-plan for this large page, container-columns
are shown, not the separate containers which are arranged in the columns,
a more convenient representation. A container-column may be made up of just
one container, as in the case of the container holding the diagram of the
Krebs cycle. This eliminates the need for separate symbols for container-columns
and single containers.
Information to be found in the containers, for example the Krebs
Cycle on this page.
Part of page-home. This is a list of information such as container-contents
to be found on the Large Page.
Part of page-home. This can be used for many different operations,
for example, compacting.
containers Containers which, unlike cell-containers, are separated
by white space.
button Web sites are made up of text and, often, images. Apart
from their primary use in providing information, and so on, the text and
images can also be used to bring about events, such as reaching the top
of the page. In a long page, it makes no sense at all to provide top-buttons,
since the user can simply click on the existing text or image to reach the
top of the page. The text or image acts as a dual-purpose button. It's necessary
to make the text or image a button which is not at all obvious: in the case
of text, it will not be blue and underlined, for example. The General Glossary
of this site uses all its text (after the list of entries) as a dual-purpose
button. Since the dual-purpose button is large (it can easily be seen in
aerial view) it forms an expanse.
or expanse-button A button which is extensive,
in shape often, but not always, rectangular. I generally use text - a text-button
- rather than an image to bring about the link. Invisible or visible text
may be used. In the case of visible text, the text is dual-purpose: the
text provides information as well as being used for the link. If images
are used, they too may be dual-purpose: the image provides information (or
an aesthetic experience, etc) as well as being used for the link. An expanse-button
has the advantage that it can be readily seen in aerial view.
An event such as choosing a container for view or going to page-home can
then be achieved before returning to ground view. The General
Glossary of this site demonstrates use of an expanse-button. To view it,
click on the Glossary button at the top left of this page.
model of information architecture. Compare one floor of a very
large department store (this is only an analogy - I very much favour small-scale
retailing for most purposes.) The retail area is large and continuous. Not
many of the items for sale can be seen in detail, but you can see the general
layout easily. Large Page Design presents information in a similar way.
In aerial (zoomed) view, the general layout can be seen easily. Existing
methods of Web design for presenting large quantities of information can
be compared with a different method of retailing, and one which is much
less convenient: as if the same items were in a number of small rooms, and
many of them in cupboards.
content Content which can't be moved within the page, for example
by bringing it to a viewer from its original location, or by compacting.
Much easier to implement than movable content.
One of the two main forms of movement in Large Page Design.. The other is
the rail. In the case of flight-movement, there is no continuous active
band linking the departure-node and the arrival-node. Flight-movements may
be short as well as long and are not quicker than rail-movements - both
are almost instantaneous.
A non-active line which shows a flight-movement which is possible
on the Large Page, linking flight-nodes. The flight-guide is a form of linkage-indicator.
The departure-node or arrival-node for a flight-movement. The equivalent,
for journeys in the world, of an airport. (There is linkage between flight-node
Clicking on a rail which is a flight-rail (or some other action
which activates the rail) takes the user to a flight-node rather than a
The arrangement of containers (or information-clusters if these
have similar sizes and shapes) in rows and columns, as in a table. The regularity
of grid-organization may well make the provision of a detailed page-plan
view The unzoomed view of the page. You're reading this information
in ground view. Compare aerial view.
Part of page-home. This contains useful information about navigating
and using the Large Page.
Information which is is in one place rather than diffuse or dispersed
but not inside a container. Nodes allow ready access to these information-clusters
and ready movement from these clusters to other parts of the Large Page.
rail A rail which is not visible on screen, although its position
may be indicated by a very thin rail-guide.
The view you have of this page is at ground level.
You can obtain a panoramic view of ground level (if you have zooming facilities)
by taking an aerial view. If you click on a blue underlined link, for example
to take you from the top of this page to the glossary, you are still at
ground level: this is simply a movement within the page.
On the other hand, a blue, underlined link which took you to another page,
leaving this page behind, would take you to level 1 and
a similar link from level 1 would take you to level 2.
A 'journey' within the Large Page. The designer of the Large Page
who is not purely concerned with information will often be able to give
to these movements the feeling of anticipation, excitement, eventfulness,
interest and relief of journeys in the world. Movements take the user into
different regions, often strikingly different regions, of the Large Page.
The designer who is entirely concerned with information will be concerned
to make these movements as efficient as possible, so that information can
be consulted quickly and easily. For very large pages, graph theory may
be useful for this purpose. Movements within the Large Page are generally
very fast, using rail-movements and flight-movements, so that the user can
navigate the page with great ease, although much slow movements are also
A device which gives an indication to the user about movement in
the Large Page, generally an indication which is grasped very easily or
even subconsciously, for example, changes in colour or tonality, for example
from black through various shades of grey to white. The gradient gives the
user directional information.
Part of page-home. A plan of the Large Page for the application
of graph theory, showing nodes, edges etc.
The departure point or arrival point for movements in the Large
Page. So, there are departure-nodes and arrival-nodes. In most Large Pages,
no information will be far from a node, so that there is ready access to
all the information on the Large Page.
The starting point for movements (journeys) around the Large Page,
just as the home page is often the starting point for navigating the pages
of a multi-page site. Page-home may also contain aids for navigating the
Large Page and information about using the Large Page, such as a page-plan,
a network-plan, a contents-table, a control-panel and an information-board.
For long pages and wide pages, a simpler page-home is sufficient, containing
enough information to use the page effectively, for example instructions
about the use of a text-button or rail. In this case, I simply give a paragraph
at the top of the page in bold print. Most pages on this site include page-home,
giving information about the use of dual-purpose text or the vertical rail.
A plan of the Large Page which uses page-symbols to indicate the
components of the Large Page as an aid to navigating and using the Large
Page. It would be desirable to use a standard symbol-set and a standard
colour-set. I use page-symbols and page-colours consistently on this large
page. For example, visible rails are light blue (hexadecimal #66 99 FF,
RGB 102 153 255.) Page-plans will be very diverse in kind. Some may have
similarities with the plan of a transportation network such as the London
organization A striking position-indicator and movement-indicator
which uses linear perspective or aerial perspective. For occasional use.
A device which gives an indication to the user about position in
the Large Page, generally an indication which is grasped very easily or
even subconsciously, for example, simple colour-coding: a user may move
from a yellow region of the Large Page to a blue region.
organization The arrangement of containers or information-clusters
in a circular pattern (for example, in concentric circles.) The regularity
of radial organization may well make the provision of a detailed page-plan
or rail-button A button in the form of an active
long, thin band, which may be either visible or invisible. Clicking on the
rail, or some other action, brings about movement or some other event, such
as access to a contents-table. The rail is a form of linkage-indicator.
A very thin line which indicates to the user the position of an
invisible rail. The use of rail-guides and invisible rails may be preferred
to the use of visible rails because they are less obtrusive. For other uses,
visible rails may be preferred. The rail-guide is a form of linkage-indicator.
The departure-node or arrival-node for a rail-movement. The equivalent,
for journeys in the world, of a station. (There is linkage betwen rail-node
and railway station.)
An area of the Large Page which is distinguished from other areas.
The regions may, for example, contain different information-classes. The
region may be distinguished from other regions by various means, for example,
by typographical means.
Distance from page-home.
rail A rail used to go to the top of a section of the page, so
that the user can click on an underlined link in this section. The page
on concrete poetry has an example of a section
movements Movements within the Large Page are generally very fast
but it is possible to implement leisurely tours of different areas of the
Large Page by automatic scrolling. These are slow movements (compare 'slow
food' and 'slow cities,' both of them movements which began in Italy.)
The use of text in rails or expanses to bring about events such as links.
(Compare with the established use of short sections of text, often underlined
and in blue, for links.) A text-button may be visible or invisible. If visible,
it is generally dual-purpose, to give information as well as to bring about
events such as links. If invisible, the colour of the text will have been
altered so that the text is indistinguishable from the background. The General
Glossary of this site uses a very large text-button (an expanse) to take
the user to the top of the long page.
The use of text instead of a graphic in a rail or expanse.
A vertical rail which takes the user to the top of the page. Very
useful for the long, thin pages so common in 'traditional' Web design as
well as in Large Page Design. This has great advantages over other ways
of reaching the top of the page, such as placing link text at intervals
down the page - 'to go to top of page click here.' The link text detracts
from the design.