Photographs above (all photographs taken by me.)
Derbyshire Peak District
1. View from road leading to Winnats Pass, Castleton
2. View of Mam Tor, near Castleton
3, 4, 5. Views from Edale-Hope road
See also my page which includes (in the second and third columns) material on cross country skiing. An extract from the page:
Supplementary images: from South Yorkshire,
5. View through window of my main workshop
6. Another view through the window
7. View from upper window of part of the small back garden (previously, backyard.).
These views from windows are of scenes which would be unremarkable in countries which have low temperatures and heavy snowfall in winter. Here, scenes like this are very rare and well worth recording, I think.
Other Derbyshire photographs
Above, Winnats Pass, Peak District
Above, photograph taken by me, showing the road which leads to
Winnats Pass and through the pass. Limestone visible everywhere, in outcrops
in the pass and in the dry stone walls, which contain Carboniferous fossils,
such as fossils of crinoid lilies. A substantial part of the area is a
designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI.) The geology of the
White Peak is very different from the geology of the Dark Peak, which
adjoins this area. The predominant rock of the Dark Peak is gritsone. At the
entrance to the pass, buildings of Speedwell Cavern, one of Castleton's four
show caves. The others are Peak Cavern, Blue John Cavern and Treak Cliff
Speedwell Cavern is one of the four show caves in Castleton, Derbyshire, England.
From the Wikipedia entry on Speedwell Cavern:
'The cave system consists of a horizontal lead miners' adit (a level passageway driven horizontally into the hillside) 200 metres below ground leading to the cavern itself, a limestone cave. The narrow adit is permanently flooded, so after descending a long staircase, access to the cave is made by boat. At the end of the adit, the cavern opens up with fluorspar veits, stalactites and stalagmites, and the so-called "Bottomless Pit". This chamber has an underground lake with a 20 metres (66 ft) high waterfall and an extremely deep vertical shaf ...The original depth of the shaft has been estimated, from the amount of spoil placed in the shaft over the years, at around 150 metres (490 ft).
The mine was developed in the 1770s but the limited lead ore deposits meant that it was not profitable and it was closed down by 1790.
At the foot of Winnats Pass, it is a tourist attraction with an underground boat trip to the cavern ...
A connection was discovered in 2006 between the Speedwell Cavern system and Titan, the largest natural shaft in the UK, which is 141.5 metres (464 ft) high.
When visiting any lead-mining area (almost always, an area where lead mining took place in the past), as when visiting any mining area, such as a coal-mining area, reflection is called for, in my view - an appreciation of the back-breaking, dangerous work of the miners, which only became far less dangerous and not as harsh with the technological advances which transformed mining.
Above, photograph of area shown in Photograph 1, without snow cover, photograph taken by me
The Dark Peak. View after going down the road from Castleton, towards Edale, with woods - and hawthorn blossom.
Above, hills hidden behind hawthorn.
Above, the Blue John Cavern, Castleton. Blue John: a rare form of the mineral fluorite, mined only at the Blue John Cavern and the Treak Cliff Cavern, also in Castleton.
Above, bowl made of Blue John
Above, Derbyshire dry stone wall with stone containing Blue John
Above, minerals of mine. Left, fluorite from Treak Cliff Cavern, Castleton. Centre, fluorite with barite, galena and iron from Treak Cliff Cavern. Right, from outside the Peak District - dolomite and calcite, from the Harding vein, Carrock mine, Cumbria.
For the minerals of the Midlands, 'Minerals of the English Midlands' by Roy E. Starkey is a superb guide.
Above the Keep of Peveril Castle, high above Castleton. The Keep was begun c. 1176.
Above, Hope Cement Works, the largest in the UK. Hope, Derbyshire, is near to Castleton. The Peak District Mountain Rescue team is based at the cement works. The raw materials needed for the plant's operation are available nearby. I approve of the Cement Works - more exactly, I respect and admire the achievement, the construction, the day to day production of an essential building material. (Derbyshire building stone is a strong interest of mine too, as used in the construction of dry stone walls, vernacular architecture and larger architectural forms.) The setting of the cement works is very attractive. The cement works itself could be regarded as large-scale modernist architecture, almost. The tall rectangular structure next to the chimney isn't essentially different from many modern buildings designed by architects.
Above, Derwent Reservoir
Above, well dressing in the village of Hope, 2023. Well dressing takes place on a limited scale in some other places, but Derbyshire is by far the most prominent place where well dressing takes place, appearing in succession throughout the summer months. The displays are constructed by pressing flower petals and other natural materials onto clay and are obviously transient.
57. The Old Manse, Great Hucklow
the entry on the very valuable and informative Website, 'British Listed
https://britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/101068603-the-old-manse-and-attached-garden-walls-great-hucklowBritish Listed Buildings
'House. Mid C18. Coursed squared limestone with gritstone dressings
rusticated quoins ... Steeply pitched C20
concrete tile roof and stone coped gables with moulded kneelers. Stone gable
end stacks with plain banding. Central pedimented Doric pilastered doorcase with raised
and fielded panelled door. To either side 3-light square sectioned mullion
windows. Two similar over with two more above to eaves. All fenestration C20p'
Above, Eyam Hall.
From Pevsner, 'The Buildings of England, Derbyshire:'
'Dated 1676 on a rainwater head ... The front is a half-H with the sides projecting far. It is three stories high with string-courses sharply dividing the storeys rom each other and a straight top interrupted by three small gables ... The windows are low and mullioned of three and small lights, symmetrically arranged, and touch the string courses with their tops. This latter feature as well as the comparatively classical door surround tally with the date 1676.'
Above, window and wall, Eya
Above, location of County of Derbyshire
The material in this section is different in kind from the material above - it is
wide-ranging in theme and location - but makes use of some of the
material above. I comment on some aspects of Christian belief. Eyam is
simply the starting point.
Mike Gilbert is the Rector of Baslow and Eyam in the Diocese of Derby. Below, coat of arms of the diocese.
There's a brief profile of him on the site
Below, Yersinia pestis and the Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) engorged with blood. This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission of the bacterium. When the flea feeds on an uninfectedhost Y. pestis is regurgitated into the wound, causing infection. This is a very long way from the very selective view of 'God's creation' favoured by Christians, such as the Christian who wrote the lyrics of the hymn 'All things bright and beautiful:"
All things bright and beautiful All creatures great and small All things wise and wonderful 'Twas God that made them all
Each little flower that opens
Each little bird that sings
He made their glowing colors
And made their tiny wings.
The persecution of Jews during the Black Death consisted of
a series of violent mass attacks and massacres. Jewish communities were
falsely blamed for outbreaks of the Black Death in Europe. . From 1348 to
1351, acts of violence were committed ... Jews were frequently used
as scapegoats and false accusations which stated that they had caused the
disease by deliberately poisoning wells were circulated ... Around 2,000
Jews were burnt alive on 14 February 1349 in the "Valentine's Day"
Strasbourg massacre ... In the spring of 1349, the Jewish
community in Frankfurt am Main was annihilated. That was followed by the
destruction of Jewish communities in Mainz and Cologne. The 3,000-strong
Jewish population of Mainz initially defended themselves and managed to hold
off the Christian attackers. However, the Christians managed to overwhelm
the Jewish ghetto in the end and killed all of its Jews ... One of the most
significant long-term consequences of the Black Death in Europe was the
migration of the Jews to Poland. The Jews migrated to Poland in an attempt
to escape from the persecution which they were being subjected to in Western
Europe. This event is one of the major factors that contributed to the
existence of a large population of Jews in Poland during the early 20th
century. Approximately 3.5 million Jews lived in Poland at the time of Adolf
Hitler's rise to power.
Above, Eyam church tower and Celtic cross.
Above, Plague Register, Eyam Parish Church. Heading of the Plague Register: 'Here are inscribed the names of those inhabitants of Eyam who died during the plague years 1665 - 1666.'
An issue of a very different kind: Above, the plaque in Eyam village which gives the information that here, animals were baited. Bull and bear baiting were popular events for many centuries in this and other countries. The baiting was grotesquely cruel. Chained animals were savaged by a pack of dogs, causing horrible injuries - loss of eyes, flesh ripped away. The Church did nothing to stop the abuse. Christianity has condoned, done nothing to oppose cruelty to animals. There are individual Christians who have opposed cruelty to animals but they were rare exceptions before the modern era. Baiting only became illegal when Parliament passed the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1835.